Grafting is a technique in horticulture to join the tissues of a tree or plant with other trees or plants. The main aim of this technique is to produce fruits or flowers faster than it happens in a natural way. It also helps plants to bear fruits and flowers having a better size, smell, and number. This method is being used for thousands of years as the ancient Chinese and Mesopotamian people exercised in grafting olives and other plants.
While grafting, a plant’s rootstock (onto which other plant’s seed or stem is being attached) attaches with scion (the plant being appended). Generally, a tree’s stem, fruits, leaves, or flowers are taking as the scion. In order to be the procedure successful, tissues of the plant or tree have to grow together and the process is known as inosculation.
Ultimately grafted trees will have all the traits of the scion rather than of the rootstock. It is one of the widely using methods for obtaining better fruits or flowers. In order to be successful in grafting, the plants should have vascular cambium which plays the important role in producing new tissues after the grafting.
Benefits of Grafting
- To speed the maturity of tree or plant (by this, time for flowering or bearing fruits reduces)
- To improve taste, size, number, or smell of fruits and flowers
- It is possible to make our own better plants by grafting and budding
- Consistency will be there for fruits or flowers for years
- Drought tolerance
Several studies indicate that the grafted trees or plants have more resistance to pests and diseases than the normal plants. In order to reduce the height of trees, this method is being used in several countries. It helps them during the harvesting season and reduces accidents while using ladders for plucking fruits and flowers from these trees.
Cleft grafting is one of the most used methods to graft a plant which is simple and result oriented. Other methods of grafting are bark graft, side veneer graft, splice graft, saddle graft, and so on. Though grafting is simple utmost caution has to be taken while the process undergoes.