Viruses and bugs attack on vegetable plants are common issues facing by gardeners and farmers all around the world. It is like a cold for humans, but more dangerous to a plant, that may kill the whole plant or maybe the garden itself. Sometimes the productivity also can be affected by the virus attack. So, it is important to understand the ways to overcome viruses and bugs attack on vegetable plants.
The virus attack may start with an insect bite. The bite may leave a single virus in the cell of a plant, soon the virus multiplies to many. And at last, it will devour the whole plant. For sure, the plant’s immune system will fight against the virus infection, but most of the time, the plant subdues to the virus contamination. Once a plant gets a virus disease, it is difficult to save the plant. So it is always better to give attention to stopping the spread to other plants. Let’s see how viruses and bugs attack vegetable plants and their remedies.
Plants that get viruses and bugs infection fast and its symptoms, cure
Okra (Ladies’ Finger):
Okra is one of the most common vegetables using in India. The warm and humid climate is required for the lush growth of the plant as well as its vegetables. Commonly, the plant gets viruses and other bug attacks.
Make sure to take the seeds of a healthy plant. If the infection is visible, remove the affected area as soon as possible. Most common attacks are from shoot and fruit borer, root-knot nematode, leafhopper, mites, and whitefly. The common diseases are yellow vein mosaic, damping off, fusarium wilt, powdery mildew, Cercospora leaf spot, and enation leaf curl.
For controlling the pests, use of carbaryl or neem oil emulsion is recommended, and it is advised to use in every 15-20 days. Spray dimethoate (0.05%) on the affected area to reduce leafhopper attack and whitefly attack. For mites, use wettable sulphur 80WP or dicofol at the recommended ratio.
Chilli pepper or commonly known as chilli is one of the most used vegetables around the world. Technically chillies are berries but considered as vegetables that require cooking. There are different kinds of chillies available vary according to regions to regions. The vegetable is from South America. The Portuguese brought the vegetable to India towards the end of the 15th century.
Chilli prefers hot weather, but the night temperature should come under 24 degree Celsius. The plant requires day temperatures in between 20 to 30 degrees Celsius and if the temperature exceeds for a longer time the production will be affected.
Aphids, broad mite, thrips, tomato fruit worm, mealybug, and root-knot nematode are the most common bugs that affect chillies. Damping-off, bacterial wilt, anthracnose, phytophthora blight, and aphid transmitted viruses are the diseases that the plant gets commonly.
While using the pesticide, make sure to use the specific one that aims for a pest. By this, we can assure that the pesticide doesn’t eradicate the useful organisms on the plant. Take the pesticides which have short persistence. Use dimethoate for aphids, thrips, and broad mite suppression at the required rate. For controlling mealybug use dichlorvos (0.02%) and quinalphos (0.025%). Prune all the affected area to make sure the affected disease or bugs don’t spread across the plant or garden.
All the vegetable from the family of gourds such as bitter gourd, snake gourd, ash gourd, bottle gourd and so on affect by almost the same viruses or bugs attack. Many of these vegetables are common in Kerala rather than any other places.
As for the other plants, removing the infected area is a way of treating a plant. Reduce the use of chemical pesticides in every way possible for it may kill beneficial organisms such as pollinators. Use an insect killer that lasts some days not more than that.
Fruit flies, Epilachna beetle, pumpkin beetle, and aphids are the most common pests troubling the gourds. Most common diseases are downy mildew, powdery mildew, and mosaic. Try to spray carbaryl, malathion, neem oil, dinocap, and dimethoate at their recommended proportion to remove all the infected areas.
Tomatoes are one of the most common and widely cultivated vegetables around the world. Though tomato is a fruit many consider it as a vegetable, especially by the nutritionists. The vegetable can be seen in ketch-up, sauce, soups, juice etc and this vegetable is enriched with vitamin A and C. Western South America and Central America are the birthplaces of tomato. Though tomato can be seen around the world, the vegetable is not free from the threats of bugs and viruses. The vegetable is fleshy and soft that make the worms to attack the vegetable easier.
The most common pests that attack tomato plant are tomato fruit worm, Epilachna beetles, jassids, tobacco caterpillar, whitefly, mites, and root-knot nematodes. And diseases are bacterial wilt, damping off, early blight, buckeye rot, late blight, fusarium wilt, powdery mildew, tomato mosaic virus, tomato leaf curl virus, tomato spotted wilt virus and anthracnose. Apart from bugs attack and diseases, for this plant some physiological disorders can come such as blossom end rot, sunscald, and cracking.
Use of fenvalerate, deltamethrin, malathion, dichlorvos, carbaryl, nuvan, dimethoate, and wettable sulphur can reduce all these bugs and viruses.
The family of cucumber needs rather cooler atmosphere than for other vegetables. Fruit flies, Epilachna beetles, pumpkin beetle, and aphids are the most common bugs that affect cucumber. Downy mildew, powdery mildew, and mosaic are the common diseases that the plant gets.
As for other plants, it is better to remove and bury the affected area so that the spread of these bugs or viruses can be stopped. Use of carbaryl can stop fruit flies, Epilachna beetle, and pumpkin beetle at the right ratio. Neem solution can stop the spread of downy mildew. For powdery mildew spray dinocap at the ratio of 0.05% and spray dimethoate 0.05% for stopping the disease mosaic.